Maslow’s need priority model is one of the most widely referred theories of motivation. Maslow’s theory has been criticized on several counts: Human needs cannot be classified into clear unspecified categories, i.e., their hierarchy cannot be specified.
Maslow, thought that a person’s motivational needs could be arranged in a hierarchical manner, Starting in ascending order from the lowest to the highest needs, and concluding the ones a given level of needs (set of needs) was satisfied, It ceased to be a motivator the Next Higher level of need to be, activated in order to motivate the individual.
Although the hierarchical aspects of Maslow’s theory are subject to question and after not accepted, His identification of basic needs has been fairly popular.
Features of Maslow’s Hierarchy Needs
There are some key characteristics of Maslow’s need hierarchy theory:
1. Human Needs
Human needs form A particular ‘hierarchy or priority’ structure in the order of importance.
It defines all work operations from priority to less priority.
2. Employee Demands
The urge to fulfill needs is a prime factor of motivation for people at work.
Human beings strive to fulfill a wide range of needs.
Human needs are multiple, complex, and interrelated.
3. Individual Discoverings
As soon as one need is satisfied, the individual discovers another need that is still unfulfilled.
A satisfied need ceases to be a motivator, I.e., They do not influence human behavior.
Unsatisfied needs are our motivators, I.e., they influence human behavior.
5. Lower Order Needs
Lower-live needs must be at least partially satisfied before higher-level needs emerge.
In other words, a higher-level need does not become an active motivating force until the preceding lower-order needs are satisfied or needs are not felt at die same time.
6. High-Level Needs
Each high-level need Emerges for the low-level need is completely satisfied.
Thus, All people to a greater or lesser extent, have the identified needs.
7. Effective Decision Maker
So he can use this skill to take an ideal decision at right time.
Levels of Maslow’s Hierarchy Needs Theory
Maslow identified 5 levels in his need hierarchical in ascending order of importance which may be described as follows:
1. Physiological Needs
These are the basic needs for sustaining human life itself such as needs for food, drink, shelter, clothing, sleep, and others.
Man can live by bread alone if there is no butter.
B7 Key Features of Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory once these basic needs are satisfied, they are no longer motivated.
2. Safety Needs
Safety or securing needs are concerned with freedom from physical or physiological harm.
Danger, deprivation, or threat such as loss of a job, Property, food, clothing, and shelter.
Ideal planning also saves safety terms.
3. Social or Affiliation or Acceptance Needs
These are belongingness needs emanating from the human Instinct of affiliation or association with others.
These include Owners, love, and affection, needs of mutual relations, and identification with some group.
These are the needs more of mind and spirit than of Physique.
4. Esteem Needs
The set of higher-order needs concerns reaching one’s potential as a total human being. It is the desire to become what one is capable of becoming.
For Example, to maximize one’s capacity and abilities in order to accomplish something appreciable and self-fulfilling.
Thus, It is a need for being creative or innovative for transforming the self into reality.
5. Self-Actualization Needs
Self-actualization needs to represent the growth of an individual toward the fulfillment of the highest needs.
Self-actualizing people can be concerned with themselves but also are free to recognize the needs and desires of others.
Also capable of responding to the uniqueness of people and situations rather than responding to the demands of reality.
Critical Evolution of Maslow’s Hierarchy Needs Theory
The determination of higher and lower levels is dependent on people’s cultural values, personalities, and desires.
For example, The high-level need of an Indian worker may be at the lower-level need of an American worker.
It is not necessary that at a time only one need is satisfied. In other words, the needs of more than one level may be fulfilled jointly.
For example, physical and esteem needs. Maslow’s model does not explain this multi-motivational fact.
Some of the assumptions of Maslow’s theory are not always found in practice.
It has been found by some Scholars like Lawler and shuttle that physical and safety needs may be probably satisfied. but high-level needs do not appear to be rather satisfiable.
Thus, Maslow may not be the final answer in motivation, yet his model does make a significant contribution in terms of making management aware of the diverse needs of human beings at work, Their diverse motives.
Needs may not be the only determinants of human behavior but they are definitely important for understanding such behavior.
Differences between Maslow’s and Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation
Herzberg’s theory is closely related to Maslow’s need hierarchy.
Both of them are based on human needs for motives that are which motivate an individual the hygiene or maintenance factors of Herzberg are roughly equivalent to Maslow’s lower-level needs as shown in the following figure.
The motivating factors are roughly equivalent to Maslow’s higher-level needs as shown in the following figure:
There are some differences between the two theories:
- Maslow has given hierarchical on the sequential arrangement of human needs suggesting that any unsatisfied need whether of lower order or higher order will motivate individuals. Thus, Herzberg has suggested the use of motivators to improve motivation and job performance and to depend on hygiene or maintenance factors of motivation factors.
- Herzberg has attempted to refine and reinforce the need priority in the model and has thrown new light on the content of work motivation. Thus, Maslow’s theory has been considerably modified by Herzberg, especially by identifying two factors of human needs.
- Maslow is silent on the job content aspect, Where Herzberg has emphasized job enrichment which is sent the deliberate upgrading of responsibility, scope, and challenging work.