The history of the evolution and growth of human resource management in India is not very old. There are so many internal and external terms are influencing the HRM in India.
The greater emphasis on human dignity and the more enlightened labour movement has created many new dimensions for the changing human resource management in India.
Factors Affecting the Growth of HRM in India
The various factors which have impeded the growth and progress of human resource management in India are described below:
1. Sluggish Industrial Growth
In India, it was the late start of the factory system. The industry started with the development of railways.
Human resource management is conditioned by industrial development.
Its sluggish growth can be linked to the late arrival of a large industry system.
2. Illiteracy of Industrial Worker
The Indian worker in the early days of industrialization was illiterate and ignorant of employment procedures.
He possessed low staus, low understanding, and a low level of knowledge about initial activities and labour welfare.
3. Casual and Cheap labour
In India, the main source of labour supply has been the agricultural sector.
This field is uncertain. industrial sector flaws labour from surrounding rural areas. Hence, it adversely affected the growth of industrialization.
The other view stated is that since labour was in abundance, good human relations could not develop.
There have been arbitrary policies of recruitment dismissals and layoffs. This situation retarded the growth of HRM.
4. Weak labour Movement
In India, casual labour, illiteracy and ignorance, traditional thinking, outside leadership of the union, unawareness of self rights, heterogeneous nature of workers, etc, have been some of the reasons for the weak labour movement.
These conditions restricted the proper development of HRM in India.
5. Highly Authoritarian Culture
There have been many feudal and authoritarian traditions and culture in India.
This makes employees immature and dependent on superiors. Independence is not a value in India.
This culture discourages a participative style of management. This culture treats workers as slaves and machines or inanimate things.
Hence, the proper philosophy of HRM could not develop in Indian industries.
6. Technological Backwardness
The huge technological progress in the west has the standard of living of their workers.
But in India, we had a very poor level of technical growth. Or techniques of production have been very traditional and old.
This backward technology has retarded the fast development of HRM in India.
7. Instability in Employment
Workers are not stable in industries. They come from villages.
They face hurdles in settings down in cities and bringing their families from the villages. In fact, industrial workers are pushed, not pulled to the city.
This instability in employment could not establish the proper image of human resources in industries.
8. Unhealthy Growth of Trade Unions
Trade unionism in India developed quite slowly as compared to western countries.
This growth was affected by a ghost factor like low membership, political leadership, lack of management support, lack of funds, dual membership of unions, non-productive activities, etc.
Workers do not take an active part in union activities.
Hence, they could not succeed in taking part in managerial affairs. They were not empowered by management.
Thus, the stays if HRM could not develop.
9. Poor Working Environment
The working environment in factories has been extremely poor due to many factors such as long hours of work, monotonous tasks, job insecurity, lack of social security and welfare measures, mass illiteracy, etc.
Due to this poor work environment, workers could not raise their status.
10. Indifferent Attitude of Management
During the last few decades managers adopted a mechanistic and commodity approach towards the worker.
They were treated like machines. They were not allowed any participation in management activities.
Their jobs were not designed and enriched.
Human resource activities were not organized. This impeded the growth of HRM in the country.
11. Other Inhibiting Factors
- Lack of personnel management education.
- Lack o professional and socially responsible approach towards workers’ development.
- The apathetic attitude of the government towards employee benefits and management.
- The migratory character of Indian labor.
- Rural background of labor.
- Unsympathetic attitude and bureaucratic mentality of management.
- Theory X assumptions of managers towards workers.