Perfect competition is one of the market structure and it has an important place in the theory of pricing. But it is an imaginary market structure that is not found in real practice. It presents an ideal picture of market conditions but in real life such a market is absent.
Does Perfect Competition Exist in the Real World
Perfect competition is an imaginary an unrealistic market structure and it is called a Myth because of the following reasons:
1. Lack of a Large number of Buyers and Sellers
In some markets, there is a large number of sellers and few buyers while in other markets a large number of buyers and a small number of sellers and they are in a position to influence the price.
2. Restrictions on Entry and Exit of Firms
Perfect competition assumes that there is freedom of entry and exit of firms in the industry.
But in actual practice, we see that government intervention in the form of licensing policy, etc.
And the establishment cost of firms is such limitations that restrictions are in existence.
3. Existence of Artificial Restrictions
As we know that in the marketing of good buyers and sellers in indulge in various tactics and use various types of artificial restrictions.
Government policy, influencing the sales and purchase of goods in the form of licensing policy, rationing policy, etc.
Thus, Pressure from trade unions and producers Federations are some of the restrictions in any type of market structure are found.
4. Lack of Homogenous Product
Perfect competition assumes that the products are identical but in actual practice, we do find differentiated products.
Various brands of products are available in the market, for example, Coffee, soap, edible oil, soap, TV, watches are having different brands. Hence, this assumption of perfect competition is a myth.
5. No Perfect Knowledge of Market Condition
In perfect competition, there is a perfect knowledge on the part of all buyers and sellers about market conditions.
But we know that many buyers and sellers do not have perfect knowledge and at the same time, they are lazy and careless that they do not bother about the minor difference in the price of a product.
Thus, Some of the firms charge high prices for their product because of their dominance and reputation in the market.
It refutes the characteristic of perfect competition.
6. Absence of Perfect Mobility of Factors of Production
Perfect competition assumes that all the factors of production move from low-paying remunerative industry to highly paid remuneration.
But in actual practice will find that labour, entrepreneur, and Organisation or three human factors and they are not only affected by economic factors but they are also influenced by non-economic factors namely language, religion, caste, distance, environment, etc.
Hence, the perfect mobility of factors of production is also a myth or imaginary market in economics.
7. Presence of Transport Cost
Perfect competition assumes that there is no transport cost because the market area is adjacent.
But in the practice we see that sellers and buyers are scattered and on account of this element the goods and transferred from one place to another then they will be transportation cost.
8. Existence of Non-Price Competition
Perfect competition assumes that at one price commodity is sold and bought in whatever quantity.
But in real practice, we find that or a large amount is spent on advertisement and sales promotion (non -price competition) in order to attract more customers and to boost our sales.
9. Price Differences
Perfect competition is based on single price consideration.
But it is a myth because different prices are charges from a different buyer by the sale is due to geographical difference and attachment to different brands of a product, social objective and government policy and trade barriers.
Thus, we can say that all the characteristics of perfect competition are ideal and imaginary. In real practice, the things and market structures are totally different and on account of such a situation and we called the perfect competition a myth and imaginary market condition.
Thus, now you now the Does perfect competition exist in the real world or Not.