In marketing, advertising is complex and varied, It has many dimensions. Advertisers try to reach many different types of audiences. Thus, it has many kinds. Let us examine some major types of advertising.
Advertising is paid non-personal communication from an identified sponsor using mass media to persuade or influence an audience.
Types of Advertising in Marketing
Following are the different types of advertising used in marketing:
1. Product and Institutional Advertising
Product advertising focuses on promoting specifically identified goods and services.
It is used to promote the features, benefits, and use of the product.
Institutional advertising tries to develop goodwill for a company or even an industry. Its objective is to improve the advertiser’s image, and relations with the various groups.
This includes not only consumers but also current and prospective channel members, suppliers, employees, and the general public.
2. Direct Action and Indirect Action Advertising
With direct action advertising, sellers seek a quick response to their message.
Indirect action advertising, on the other hand, is designed to stimulate demand over a longer period of time.
It is intended to inform customers that the product exists and to pint out its benefits.
3. Patronage and Public Service Advertising
There are subdivisions of institutional advertising. Patronage advertising presents information about the advertiser’s business such change in its delivery policy.
Public service advertising shows the advertiser as a good citizen.
Thus, it may urge the public to support a campaign for public welfare.
4. Primary and Selective Demand Advertising
Primary demand advertising is designed to stimulate the demand for a generic category of a product such as coffee.
It is to be used in two situations:
- When a product is in introductory stages of its life cycle, and
- When the industry’s product is in competition with other product categories.
Selective demand advertising is used to stimulate demand for individual brands. It is competitive- it pits one brand against another.
5. Comparative Advertising
It means making specific brand comparisons using actual product names.
Here advertiser mentions rival brands by name and flatly states that the advertised brand is better than the other,
6. Brand Advertising
The most visible types of advertising in marketing are national consumer or brand advertising.
Brand advertising focuses on the development of a long term brand identity and image.
7. National Advertising
The term national advertising has a special non-geographic meaning in advertising.
It refers to the advertising by the owner of trademarked producer or service sold through different distributors or stores, wherever they may be.
It does not advertise is to make known to the consumer the name of the product and service, its uses, benefits, and advantages, so that a person will be disposed to buy or order it whenever and wherever it is convenient to do so.
It is up to the national advertiser to create the demand for the product or service.
8. Retail or Local Advertising
Retail and local advertising is that of a dealer who sells directly to the consumer.
The objectives tend to focus on stimulating store traffic and creating a distinctive image for the retailer.
It lies between trade and consumer advertising. The purpose of retail advertising is threefold:
- To attract customers to the premises and to increase store traffic.
- To sell goods that are exclusive to the store.
- To sell the stock in the shop, perhaps promoting items that are seasonal or presenting a representative selection, or making special offers.
Retail advertising is characterized by (A). creating an image of the shop, (B). establishing its location, (C). variety or specialty of goods offered, and (D). competitive price offers.
The principles of media for retail advertising are:
- Local weekly newspapers.
- Regional daily newspapers, of which most are evenings.
- Public transport external posters and interior cards, and arena advertising at sports grounds.
- Direct mail to regular or account customers, and door to door mail drop distribution.
- Regional commercial television.
- Indepemdent local radio.
- Window bills and point of sale displays within the shop.
- Window and in-store displays and,
9. End Product Advertising
It is a variant of the usual national advertising that asks the consumer to buy a product by name.
There are two kinds of goods bought by the general public, consumer goods and consumer durables, which together with consumer services are advertised through various media. It has a wide appeal.
10. Business to Business Advertising
The purpose of this advertising is to promote non-consumer goods and services.
These may include raw materials, components, and accessories, plants, and machineries, services such as insurance, office equipment, and supplies.
It includes only messages directed at retailers, wholesalers, and distributors, and from industrial purchasers and professionals such as lawyers and physicians to other businesses, but not to general consumers.
11. Trade Advertising
Trade advertising is addressed to distributors, chiefly wholesalers, agents, importers/exporters, and numerous kinds of retailers, large small. Goods are advertised for resale.
Its purpose is to inform merchants and traders about goods available for resale.
It also reminds them about well-established brands, introduces new lines or as is often the case, announces special efforts to help retailers sell goods.
12. Public Service Advertising
Public service announcements communicate a message on behalf of some good cause, such as stopping drunk driving or preventing child abuse.
These advertisements are usually created by advertising professionals free of charge and the media often donate space and time.
13. Cooperative Advertising
It is an important facet of retail advertising. In this advertising, manufacturers contribute in some way such as artwork, part payment, to the retailers’ own advertising in local media.
It is also termed as vertical advertising. It involves middleman and producers sharing in the cost of ads. It is a joint venture advertising.
14. Financial Advertising
The object of this advertising may be to borrow or lend money, conduct all kinds of insurance, sell shares, units trusts, bonds, and pension funds or report financial results.
It tends to occupy large spaces and contain the detailed information necessary o explain schemes and achieve confidence.
It emphasis benefits that are represented by figures such as interest rates and returns on investments.
15. Recruitment Advertising
It aims to recruit staff. It may consist of run on classified or display advertisements.
It attracts the largest number of applications at the lowest possible cost.
16. Industrial Advertising
A manufacturer is a buyer of machinery, equipment, raw materials, and components used in producing the goods he sells.
Those who have machinery, equipment, or material to sell to other producers will address their advertising especially to them in their industry.
Industrial advertising is aimed at a market that has certain characteristics:
- Sales may run into very large sums.
- Many people are involved in a decision to buy and,
- The decision on a matter may take a long time.
The products are not being bought for personal use.
17. Interactive Advertising
It is delivered to individual consumers who have access to a computer and the internet.
18. Reminder Advertising
It tries to keep the product’s name before the public.
It is useful when the product has achieved brand preference or product is in the market maturity or sales decline stages.
19. Non-Commercial Advertising
It is done non-profit organizations such as public interest groups, governments, political parties or non-profit hospitals and universities.
What is the importance of advertising in marketing?
Advertising provide ongoing contact with target customers even when a salesman is not available. And it increases brand awareness and to build a brand image.
Thus, now you know the types of advertising in marketing.