Motivation is the driving force within individuals that impels them to action. This driving force is produced by a state of uncomfortable tension, which exists as a result of an unfulfilled need. All individuals have needs, wants, and desires. Thus, motives have a role in consumer behavior.
Although marketing research plays its important role for business firms to solve their marketing problems, it is confined to only the ‘what’ aspect of the problem and does not provide the answer to the ‘why’ aspect of the problem. This answer is found in motivation research.
Characteristics of Motivation Research
The following main features of motivation research:
- Motivation research is concerned with human motives.
- It is qualitative research, so it is very difficult to generalize the findings.
- It operates on the premise that consumers are not always aware of the reasons for their actions.
- Motivation research attempts to discover, underlying feelings, attitudes, and emotions concerning product, service, or brand use.
- It is designed to uncover consumers of the subconscious or hidden motivation.
- Marketing research is focused on what consumers do, but the focus of motivation research is on why they do it.
- Motivation research is an interdisciplinary science, psychologists, sociologists, and anthropologist have made valuable contributions to the understanding of why people act as they do in the Marketplace.
Need of Motivation Research
Limitations of marketing research have led to the development of motivation research.
It may provide quantitative data and information concerning various aspects of marketing operations but cannot furnish qualitative data concerned with its consumers.
The needs for motivation research may be discussed under the following points:
1. To Understand Human Motives
From the point of view of motives, human behavior may be grouped into three categories.
- At the first level, consumers recognize and are quite willing to talk about their motives for buying a specific product.
- At a second level, they are aware of their reasons for buying, but will not admit them to others.
- At the three Third Level, there are consumers who themselves do not know the real factors motivating their buying actions.
It is easier to identify the motives falling in the first and second category, but the most difficult motives to uncover are those of the third category.
Consumers in the first category reveal their feelings, views, and opinions openly.
The motives at the second and third levels may be identified only with the help of suitable techniques of motivation research.
2. Psychoanalytical Understanding of Consumers Personality
In the psychoanalytic school of thought, there are three parts of the mind – the Id, Ego, and Superego.
The ID houses the basic instinctive drives, many of them may be similar to animals.
The superego is our conscience, accepting moral standards and directing the instinctive motives into acceptable channels, to avoid feelings of guilt and shame.
The id and superego sometimes may conflict. The ego is the conscience, rational control center which maintains a balance between the uninhibited motives of the id and the socially oriented constraining superego.
The study of ego is very important for marketing companies because it represents the practical side of human behavior.
Also, there is Important to study consumer behavior.
Techniques of motivation research may provide great assistance in this regard.
3. Study of the Unconscious Mind of Consumers
Studies have shown that the unconscious mind may understand and respond to meaning and form of emotional responses and guide most actions largely independent of conscious awareness.
The findings imply that despite the subjective belief of being in conscious control of their feelings, thoughts, decisions, and actions, people are directed for more than they realize by their subconscious and unconscious mind.
With the help of motivation research, marketing companies may study the unconscious mind of consumers and anticipate prospective behavior up to some extent.
4. Development of New Products
Motivation research may provide a basic orientation for new product categories.
With the help of motivation research, hidden needs of consumers may be identified, and the marketing company may develop suitable products for this purpose.
5. Effective Promotional Campaign
Based on the findings of motivation research, the marketing company may design a good copy of the advertisement consistent with appropriate appeals to motivate the consumers to purchase products.
Motivation research enables the marketing company to explore and identify the ideas, opinions, reactions of consumers regarding advertising copy and costly errors may be avoided at an early stage.
what is the importance of motivation research?
The term Motivation research includes all types of research into human motives, is generally used to refer to qualitative research design to uncover the consumers’ sub-conscience or hidden motivations.
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