The nature of management has been influenced by the different concepts propounded by eminent management thinkers and Exports. The concept of management is really Universal and dynamic. Management as Art and Science or Both Explanation.
The continuous and Rapid development of Management principles and practices in organizations have changed the nature of management. The nature of management can also be analyzed in the context of it being an inborn and accurate ability.
Management as Art and Science or Both Explanation
Generally, a controversy arises whether the management is science or art. It is said that management is the oldest of Arts and youngest of science. The explains the changing nature of management. But to have an exact answer to the question. Thus, It is necessary to understand both these aspects separately and combinedly as described below:
Management an art
Art refers to the way of doing specific things. It indicates how and objectives is to be achieved. George R Terry writes ‘arts is bringing about of the desired result through the application of skill’. Art is, Thus, skillful application of knowledge which entirely depends on the inherent capacity of a person which comes from within a person and is learned from practice and experience.
In this sense, management is certainly an art as a manager used his skill and knowledge in solving even complicated problems that have been come across in the working of his enterprise successfully. Every manager develops his own personal style and this is something which can be associated with art.
In the words of Ernest Dale, “management is considered as an art rather than science mainly because Managerial skill is a personal possession and is intuitive”. Peter F Drucker says, “Management is a practice rather than science”.Management as Art and Science or Both Explanation.
Management as Science
Science may be described as a systematized body of knowledge pertaining to an area of study and contains some general truths explaining past events. It is systematized in the sense the relationship between variables and limits have been an ascertained and underlying principles have been discovered.
For a subject to be classified as a science, It is absolutely necessary that it should have codified principles and techniques that explains certain truth with reference. To basic phenomena or principals. In this sense, management is a science as it has also developed some systematized knowledge.
Like other Sciences, management has also developed certain principles, laws, generalizations, which are universal in nature and are applicable wherever the efforts of the people are to be coordinated. These fundamental principles have been developed after being tested in varying situations and they can be applied in the conduct of undertaking. a manager also takes decisions by applying scientific methodology.
Management is a Science because decisions are made by managers on facts developed through a scientific approach. The objective of a science of management is to replace hunches and guesswork and trial and error approach with exact knowledge so that management objectives can be reached with effort time and cost.
Management is Art and Science, both
It has now accepted that management is an are as well as science. It has the elements of Arts as well of science. But one cannot justify that management is entirely based on art or equally based on Science. In the areas of management, science and art tattoo ideas of a coin.
Koontz and O’Donnell have also slated, “science and art are not multicellular exclusive fields of endeavor”. Another management writer E.F.L. Brech writes, “management is a process which combines art as well as science in the achievement of predetermined goals.
Similarly, Theo Haimann observes, “management contains both elements, those of a science and those of an art. This is not a contradiction in terms of art and science complement each other and is not mutually exclusive.
It may be noticed there is no hard and fast line between science and art of Management. Dean Stanley says the management is a mixture of Art and Science. The present ratio is about 70% or 30% science. There is no doubt that management is an amalgam of Science and art. But this combination cannot be in a proportion.
Management is regarded as an applied science. As an applied scientist a manager processes. The skill to use his knowledge into practice in the working of an organization.
Just as a doctor has to translate his knowledge into curing the presents, a manager also used his knowledge in the solution of managerial problems.
Management as a Profession
In the words of Hodge and Johnson, “Profession is a vocation requiring some significant body of knowledge that is applied with a high degree of consistency in the service of some relevant segment of sociality.” A profession has the following characteristics according to the justice of Supreme Court of USA :
Thus, Now you know about Management as Art and Science or Both Explanation.