When staff Specialists are incorporated into the organization and are placed upon the same (line) Authoritative level as the line executives. This type of structure is called functional organization or line and functional organization.
In this type of organization, the emphasis is on managing some function wherever the function may be performed in the enterprise. For example, the total work activities of an enterprise may be divided into various functions like purchases, production, marketing, finance, quality control.
One manager would be responsible for each of these functions separately, which means that the finance manager would be responsible for financial activities and would have direct command over all such activities carried out in the enterprise.
He will have official command or formal power finance function and perform it. Wherever The function of the person may be located in the enterprise. This is functional structure.
Functional authority occupies a Midway position between ‘line authority’ and ‘stop advice’. It is a means of putting the specialists in top postings throughout the enterprise. It confers upon the holder an unlimited power of command over the people of other departments concerning their function.
Function authority remains confined functional guidance to different departments. It helps in maintaining ability and uniformity in the performance of functional areas throughout the Enterprise.
Advantages or merits of Functional organization
The functional organization helps in achieving the benefits of specialization of work. Every functional in charge is an expert in his area and can help the subordinate to perform better in his area.
2. Production of workload
It reduces the burden on the top executives. There is pointed supervision in the enterprise, and every function in charge looks after his functional area only.
3. Executive development
A functional manager is required to have expertise in one function only. This facilitates better executive development.(Functional Organizations: Meaning & Structure with Merits and Demerits)
4. Scope of expansion
It offers Greater scope for expansion as compared to line Organisation. It does not face the problem of Limited capabilities of a few line managers.
5. More efficiency
It creates the high degree of efficiency as the groups of employees and the functional heads perform their Limited and specialized operations. Thus, Thereby bringing expertise in performance and reduction in costs.
6. Better control
The expert knowledge of the functional managers of facilitates better control and supervision in the Enterprise.
Disadvantages or demerits of Functional organization
Demerits of the functional organization are as follows:
The operation of the functional organization is, complicated and is not easily understood due to its various technicalities. Workers are surprised by a number of instructions from different functional Heads.
Thus, The employees in purchase functions are restricted in several ways by the financial manager and quality control manager also. This creates confusion in the Enterprise.
2. Dual command in functional organization
It violates the principles of unity of command since a person is accountable to more than one bosses.
3. Limited perspective
A functional manager tends to create boundaries around himself and thinks only in terms of his own department rather than the whole enterprise. This results in loss of overall perspective in dealing with business problems.
4. Delay in decision making
There is general lack of coordination among the functional executives which causes the delay in decision making. When a decision problem requires the involvement of more than one specialist.
5. Problem of succession
The functional organization develops specialist rather than generalists. This may create the problem of succession in top executives.
On the whole, This type of organization has been quite successfully followed in an enterprise like banks, insurance companies. For the division of work into various departments. But for the division of work within the departments themselves, The structure has not been found to be very successful mainly because there is no clear line of authority.
Thus, Now you understood the concept of Functional Organizations: Meaning & Structure with Merits and Demerits.
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