There is the number of 12 Features or Characteristics of Planning in Management that indicate towards its nature.
Nature or Characteristics of Planning
These may be outlined as follow:
Planning is goal-oriented in the sense that plans are prepared and implemented to achieve certain objectives.
2. Basic to all managerial functions.
Planning is a function that is the foundation of the management process. Planing logically precedes all other functions of management, such as organizing, staffing and etc.
Because without the plan there is nothing to organize, nothing to control. Every managerial action as to be properly planned.
3. Planning Pervasive.
Planning is a function of all managers, although the nature and extent of planning will vary with their authority and level in the organizational hierarchy. Managers at higher levels spend more time and effort on planning than to lower level managers.
4. Interdependent process.
Planning affects and is affected by the programmes of different departments in so far as these programmes constitute an integrated effort.
5. Continuous process.
Planning is an ongoing process. Old plans have to be revised and new plans have to be prepared in case the environment undergoes a change It shows the dynamic nature of planning.
6. Forecasting integral to planing.
The essence of planning is forecasting. Plans are the synthesis of various forecasts. Thus, planning is inextricably bound up with planning. 12 Features or Characteristics of Planning in Management.
7. Planning is Future Oriented.
Planning is looking forward and it prepares an enterprise for future.
8. Intellectual process.
Planning is a mental or conceptual exercise. It, therefore, involves rational decision making, which requires imagination, foresight, sound judgment: and involves thinking before doing the thinking on the basis of facts and information.
9. Planning is Integrating process.
Planning is essential for the enterprise as a whole. Newman and others have been drawn our attention towards this feature of planing. ‘without planning, an enterprise will soon disintegrate the pattern of its actions would be as random as that made by leases scampering(running quickly in short steps) before an autumn wind.
Generally, its employees would be as confused as ants in an upturned anthill. If there are no plans, action will be a random activity in the organization, and there will be chaos.
10. Planning and control are inseparable.
Unplanned action cannot be controlled without control, panned actions cannot be executed. Plans furnish standards of control. In fact, “Planning is meaningless without control and control is aimless without, planning.” Planning is the measuring rod for efficiency.
11. The choice among alternative courses of action.
The need for planning arises due to several ways available for an action. If there is only one way out left, there is no need for planning.
12. Planning is a Flexible process.
The Principle of ‘navigational change’ (I.e. change according to changes in the environment) applies to planning.
Thus, In other words, effective planning requires continuous checking on events and forecasts, and the redrawing, of plans to maintain a course towards desired goals. Thus, plans have to be adaptable to changing circumstances.
Now you know 12 Features or Characteristics of Planning in Management.